Test Your Knowledge: Proliferative Glomerulonephritis

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Proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) is defined as an increase in glomerular cellularity due to the influx of leukocytes and/or the proliferation of native cells. There are four major light microscopy patterns of proliferative GN – mesangial, endocapillary, membranoproliferative, and crescentic/necrotizing (extracapillary). Diagnosis requires the correlation of the injury pattern seen by light microscopy (LM) with the […]

Test Your Knowledge: Anti-GBM Disease

Anti–glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is a devastating disease that leads to a rapidly progressive glomerular disease. Anti-GBM antibodies generally are of immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1), and in most cases can readily be detected in the circulation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A recent article in AJKD by Ohlsson et al report 4 cases in […]

Test Your Knowledge: Hemodialysis

eAJKD

Dialysis has evolved as we learn more about uremia. In addition, recent studies have answered some important questions regarding timing and duration of dialysis. Golper et al discuss hemodialysis in a Core Curriculum published by AJKD. The following questions will test your knowledge on this very important topic: 1. The per treatment Kt/V for short […]

Test Your Knowledge: The Liver and the Kidney

eAJKD

The kidney is commonly affected by liver cirrhosis. Knowledge of kidney diseases in cirrhosis is important. Gonwa and Wadei discuss this topic in a recent Core Curriculum in AJKD. The following questions will test your knowledge on this topic: 1. The 4-variable MDRD equation is a reliable tool to assess kidney function in patients with […]

Test Your Knowledge: ANCA Vasculitis

eAJKD

The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAVs) comprise granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), commonly seen with antibodies to proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), both principally associated with antibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA).  Our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of these vasculitides has evolved over the last decade. Kallenberg et […]

Test Your Knowledge: Hyponatremia

eAJKD

Hyponatremia is one of the most common disorders identified in hospitalized patients, occurring in as many as 20-28% patients. A recent review by Lehrich et al in American Journal of Kidney Diseases discusses the role of vasopressin antagonists in treating this disorder. The following questions based on the article will test your knowledge of hyponatremia: […]

Test Your Knowledge: Kidney Transplantation and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

A recent article by Chandran et al published in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases describes a case of recurrent HIV-associated immune complex disease with lupus-like features following kidney transplantation. The following questions will test your knowledge on kidney transplantation and HIV-related kidney disease: 1. Finding the appropriate dose of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) in a […]

Test Your Knowledge: Transplant Glomerulopathy

Frequent double contours along the glomerular capillary loops (arrows). Methenamine silver; original magnification, ×400. Image courtesy of Dr. Tibor Nadasdy.

There is recent interest in understanding the cause of late allograft failure in kidney transplant recipients. One pathologic marker of poor allograft outcome is transplant glomerulopathy. A recent article by Husain and Sis published in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases reviews transplant glomerulopathy. The following questions will test your knowledge on transplant glomerulopathy: A […]

Test Your Knowledge: Central Vein Stenosis

Central vein stenosis (CVS) is commonly seen in patients on hemodialysis. A recent review by Dr. Anil Agarwal in American Journal of Kidney Diseases discusses the causes and prevention of this entity. The following questions based on the article will test your knowledge on CVS. 1. The most common cause of CVS is: A. Idiopathic […]

Test Your Knowledge: Hypomagnesemia

In a teaching case recently published in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Dimke et al present a case of hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia. The following questions will test your knowledge on renal magnesium handling and the evaluation of hypomagnesemia. 1. Which nephron segment reabsorbs the majority of filtered magnesium? A. Proximal tubule B. Thick ascending […]

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