When can a patient with ESRD become eligible for a kidney transplant after being successfully treated for a malignancy? This is an important question that comes up frequently. Conventional wisdom is that a patient with ESRD must be in remission for at least several years. In one study, the recurrence rate was highest recurrence rate was ~2 years after successful cancer treatment. However, hard data that gives an exact time frame one must wait after malignancy recurrence is lacking. It is also important to consider the type of malignancy. For example the highest recurrence rates are seen with myeloma, breast cancer, sarcoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer and renal cell cancer. The lowest recurrence rates are seen with lymphoma.