Heart failure is defined by pathologic sodium and fluid retention by the kidney with a heart unable to pump adequately. Thus, the 2013 AHA/ACC guidelines for heart failure recommends the dietary restriction of sodium to less than 3 grams per day for heart failure stages C+D. Many of the studies (observational in nature) report contradictory results in regards to sodium diet in patients with heart failure. Therefore, debate persists on the what the optimal sodium content should be in heart failure.