Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a condition where modern genetic advances have revolutionized our understanding of pathogenesis and heritability. This is the most common type of congenital anomaly of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT) with an estimated prevalence of 1–2%. Abnormalities in several genes have been implicated including; tenascin-X (TNXB), Roundabout homolog 2 (ROBO2), RET, and Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4).